This type of device is sometimes referred to as penis pump and may be used just prior to sexual intercourse. Modern drug therapy for ED made a significant advance in 1983, when British physiologist Giles Brindley dropped his trousers and demonstrated to a shocked Urodynamics Society audience his papaverine-induced erection. The drug Brindley injected into his penis was a non-specific vasodilator, an alpha-blocking agent, and the mechanism of action was clearly corporal smooth muscle relaxation. More than nine clinical studies performed by six universities and academic hospitals on this purified extract have confirmed the herb's beneficial effect.
In both conditions, an intact neural system is required for a successful and complete erection. The physician squeezes the glans (head) of the penis, which immediately causes the anus to contract if nerve function is normal. Additionally, adequate levels of testosterone (produced by the testes) and an intact pituitary gland are required for the development of a healthy erectile system. This form of impotence is rare and often caused by extreme psychological conditions, such as intense fear of intimacy, extreme feelings of guilt and severe anxiety. Prescribed drugs used to treat high blood pressure, ulcers, depression, and prostate cancer, as well as medications to prevent baldness or aid in dieting, can have side effects that include impotence.
The current diagnostic and statistical manual of mental diseases (DSM-IV) has included a listing for impotence.
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